Monday, January 8, 2024

Exploring Beyond Spacetime into Multidimensional Understanding

In the realm of physics, spacetime is a well-established concept, representing the four-dimensional continuum that fuses three-dimensional space with the dimension of time. This fundamental framework, rooted in Einstein's theory of relativity, has long been the cornerstone of our understanding of the universe. However, what if we expanded this concept to include dimensions that are less tangible, yet equally significant? In this article, we delve into an intriguing exploration of adding abstract dimensions - "what," "who," "why," and "how" - to our traditional understanding of spacetime.

Before diving into the depths of this multidimensional concept, let's revisit the traditional notion of spacetime. According to Einstein's theory, spacetime is a unified entity where space and time are inseparable. This interweaving of space and time significantly altered our understanding of the universe, impacting everything from our comprehension of gravity to the way we perceive the movement of celestial bodies.

Adding New Dimensions broadens our understanding of the universe by incorporating abstract aspects such as purpose, consciousness, and methodology into the traditional framework of spacetime.

  • What
    This dimension delves into the essence or nature of things. It goes beyond the mere existence of objects in space and time, probing into their intrinsic properties and states.
  • Who
    This dimension brings in the element of consciousness or the observer. It's not just about where and when events occur, but also about who is perceiving or influencing these events.
  • Why
    Here, we explore causality and purpose. Unlike the deterministic view of classical physics, this dimension seeks to understand the reasons behind occurrences in the universe.
  • How
    This is about processes and methods. It examines the mechanisms through which events unfold in the spacetime continuum.

This expanded framework is not just a theoretical curiosity; it has profound implications. By incorporating these additional dimensions, we can explore areas that traditional physics might overlook. This includes the human experience, consciousness, and perhaps even the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Consider a phenomenon like the black hole. Traditionally, we examine its spatial dimensions and temporal aspects. But what about the "how" of its formation, the "why" of its existence, or the "what" that defines its essence? This multidimensional approach offers a more holistic view.

Such a theory resonates with not just physics, but also philosophy, psychology, and other disciplines. For instance, in philosophy, the "why" and "what" can lead to discussions about the purpose of the universe or the nature of reality itself. A common critique might be the abstract nature of these new dimensions and how they can be scientifically measured or observed. In response, this theory isn't about replacing the existing model but enriching it by acknowledging aspects of our universe that are currently beyond the scope of measurable science. In everyday life, we instinctively think beyond space and time. When we plan our future, we're not just thinking about the 'when' and 'where,' but also about the 'why' and 'how.' This theory mirrors our natural inclination to view the world through multiple lenses.

This exploration into multidimensional spacetime is just the beginning of a larger conversation. What do you think about adding these dimensions to our understanding of the universe? How might this change our perception of reality? Share your thoughts and join this fascinating discussion.

Thursday, October 12, 2023

How to Read ext4 in Mac OS Ventura

Accessing ext4 filesystems on macOS can be tricky due to a lack of built-in support for this Linux filesystem. But for Mac OS Ventura users, there's a neat workaround to achieve this via ext4fuse, even if the installation throws up an error like: "ext4fuse: Linux is required for this software." 


Ensure you have Homebrew installed and updated on your system to facilitate the installation of other necessary tools. If not, you can install it using the following terminal command:

/bin/bash -c "$(curl -fsSL"

First, create a custom ext4fuse formula that you'll use for Homebrew. Open a text editor and save the following script as `ext4fuse.rb`:

class MacFuseRequirement < Requirement

  fatal true

  satisfy(build_env: false) { self.class.binary_mac_fuse_installed? }

  def self.binary_mac_fuse_installed?

    File.exist?("/usr/local/include/fuse/fuse.h") &&



  env do

    ENV.append_path "PKG_CONFIG_PATH", HOMEBREW_LIBRARY/"Homebrew/os/mac/pkgconfig/fuse"

    unless HOMEBREW_PREFIX.to_s == "/usr/local"

      ENV.append_path "HOMEBREW_LIBRARY_PATHS", "/usr/local/lib"

      ENV.append_path "HOMEBREW_INCLUDE_PATHS", "/usr/local/include/fuse"



  def message

    "macFUSE is required. Please run `brew install --cask macfuse` first."



class Ext4fuse < Formula

  desc "Read-only implementation of ext4 for FUSE"

  homepage ""

  url ""

  sha256 "550f1e152c4de7d4ea517ee1c708f57bfebb0856281c508511419db45aa3ca9f"

  license "GPL-2.0"

  head ""

  bottle do

    sha256 cellar: :any, catalina:    "446dde5e84b058966ead0cde5e38e9411f465732527f6decfa1c0dcdbd4abbef"

    sha256 cellar: :any, mojave:      "88c4918bf5218f99295e539fe4499152edb3b60b6659e44ddd68b22359f512ae"

    sha256 cellar: :any, high_sierra: "fc69c8993afd0ffc16a73c9c036ca8f83c77ac2a19b3237f76f9ccee8b30bbc9"

    sha256 cellar: :any, sierra:      "fe8bbe7cd5362f00ff06ef750926bf349d60563c20b0ecf212778631c8912ba2"

    sha256 cellar: :any, el_capitan:  "291047c821b7b205d85be853fb005510c6ab01bd4c2a2193c192299b6f049d35"

    sha256 cellar: :any, yosemite:    "b11f564b7e7c08af0b0a3e9854973d39809bf2d8a56014f4882772b2f7307ac1"


  depends_on "pkg-config" => :build

  on_macos do

    depends_on MacFuseRequirement => :build


  on_linux do

    depends_on "libfuse"


  def install

    system "make"

    bin.install "ext4fuse"



Steps to Install ext4fuse on Mac OS Ventura 13.6

1. Install macFUSE:

MacFUSE is essential for ext4fuse, run the following command to install it:

   brew install --cask macfuse

2. Install ext4fuse:

Use the custom formula created earlier to install ext4fuse:

 brew install --formula --build-from-source ./ext4fuse.rb

Note: Ensure you run this command from the directory where `ext4fuse.rb` is located.

3. Remove osxfuse (if applicable):

If you have osxfuse installed, it might be prudent to remove it since it has been renamed and superseded by macFUSE:

brew rm --cask osxfuse

4. Read Disk

 If you've successfully installed `ext4fuse` by following the previous instructions and you want to mount an ext4 filesystem, you would generally use a command like what you've provided. However, ensure that `/dev/disk2s1` represents the correct path to your ext4 partition. Also, remember that to mount filesystems, you might need the appropriate permissions.

Here’s a breakdown of your commands and what they do:

mkdir ext4_mount

This command creates a directory named `ext4_mount` in your current working directory. This directory will act as a mount point for the ext4 filesystem.

sudo ./ext4fuse /dev/disk2s1 ~/ext4_mount -o allow_other

This command tries to mount the ext4 filesystem found at `/dev/disk2s1` to the `ext4_mount` directory you created. The `-o allow_other` option allows other users to access the filesystem.


  1. Ensure `/dev/disk2s1` is correct for your system. You can use the `diskutil list` command to check all available drives and partitions.
  2. The `sudo` command is used to grant administrative permissions and will ask for your password.
  3. Ensure that your user has the necessary permissions to access the mount point. The `-o allow_other` flag should allow this, but ensuring the user has the right permissions on the mount point itself is also prudent.
  4. Keep in mind that `ext4fuse` is read-only, meaning you will be able to read files but not write to the ext4 filesystem.

Always remember to unmount the filesystem once you’re done using it to prevent any data corruption:

sudo umount ext4_mount

Or, if you mounted it using `FUSE`, you might need to use:

sudo diskutil umount ext4_mount

Using ext4 filesystems on macOS via `ext4fuse` allows for cross-platform data access, which can be quite handy for those using macOS and Linux environments simultaneously. Always remember to interact with filesystems and disks with caution to prevent any data loss.

Wrapping Up

Once you've gone through these steps, your macOS should be equipped to read ext4 filesystems via ext4fuse. The ability to access ext4 filesystems can be quite invaluable for cross-platform work or in scenarios where you have Linux data that you want to access on your macOS system. Ensure to check the mounted volume, and you should be able to access your ext4 data transparently on Mac OS Ventura.

For those consistently working with Linux filesystems, consider exploring additional GUI-based tools for a smoother workflow when interacting with ext4 volumes on macOS.


Monday, July 10, 2023

Proxmox 7 LXC Backup Failed (exit code 23)

One of my Proxmox CT backup has been unable to be saved for several days, and I'm unsure about the reason. Based on my testing, the Stop-mode backup operates effectively, while the Suspend mode does not function as intended.

Here is the log of attempted vzdump:

INFO: starting final sync /proc/180682/root/ to /mnt/storage/dump/vzdumptmp209244_1006/

INFO: resume vm

INFO: guest is online again after 3 seconds

ERROR: Backup of VM 1006 failed - command 'rsync --stats -h -X -A --numeric-ids -aH --delete --no-whole-file --inplace --one-file-system --relative '--exclude=/var/lib/php/sessions/?*' '--exclude=/tmp/?*' '--exclude=/var/tmp/?*' '--exclude=/var/run/?*.pid' /proc/180682/root//./ /mnt/storage/dump/vzdumptmp209244_1006/' failed: exit code 23

INFO: Failed at 2023-07-10 22:10:06

INFO: Backup job finished with errors

job errors

By default, for systems based on Bullseye, the 'fs.protected_regular' sysctl is set to '2' instead of the previous value of '0'. This change poses a problem for rsync's `--inplace` mode when dealing with protected files, as even the root user cannot open them with O_CREAT.

An example of this issue can be observed in Debian (or Debian-based) containers that use PHP. In these containers, the session directory '/var/lib/php/sessions' has sticky permissions, is world-writable, owned by root, and contains session files typically owned by www-data. If any of these session files are modified between the first and second rsync runs, the second run and consequently the backup operation will fail.

The solution is set fs.protected_regular in Proxmox before backup LXC (or make it permanent in /etc/sysctl.conf):

# sysctl fs.protected_regular=0